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This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Recent advances in neurobiological approaches have made the neurophysiological basis of addiction to drugs and substances far more tractable. Thus, the current state of the literature suggests that various functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), functional magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy (fMS) and quantitative assessment of synaptic transmission and synapse formation may provide useful tools in the treatment of addiction. Moreover, the available biomarkers available are useful in interpreting the neurobiological model of addiction, especially with respect to the dopaminergic function as well as its regulation via glutamate receptors. The present review aims to summarize all relevant knowledge about addiction and molecular, neural and cellular processes relevant to it while taking into account the methodological factors.
The major function of the brain and it’s brain system for addiction is to mediate and regulate physical behavior to achieve adaptive behavioral goals. This includes the formation of reward, motivation, addiction and addiction-reward relation(s). There are many forms of addiction and the most common is chronic physical and psychosocial withdrawal. This is related to the increased sensitivity of the brain and nervous system to drugs of abuse. The primary end organs of addiction are the brain, gastrointestinal tract, muscles and cardiovascular organs. Physical withdrawal is associated with altered brain morphology and function. In the brain, addiction is mostly defined as brain dysfunction due to a drug habit, although addiction could be also seen as a behavior disorder (e.g., compulsive gambling). It shows striking similarities with other behavioral disorders, such as substance addiction which is manifested due to a lack of appropriate and sufficient substance to satisfy the physiological need and compulsive behaviors
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